01.06.2023Thanks to the radiation they emit, radioactive compounds are suited both to imaging and treating cancers. By appropriately combining them in novel, so-called radionuclide theranostics, both applications can be dovetailed.
31.05.2023A German-Dutch research team has shown that ultrastructural changes in healthy areas in the white matter of MS patients make the tissue more susceptible to inflammation and the formation of lesions
31.05.2023Damage to the brains of patients operated on for brain tumors may be assessed by measuring biomarkers in the blood pre- and postoperatively. A new study by University of Gothenburg researchers shows that the increase in markers tallies well with the impairment caused by insufficient blood flow.
26.05.2023Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have developed a molecular method able to detect whether or not bacteria respond to antibiotics within minutes.
25.05.2023An interdisciplinary team led by Prof. Angelo Relógio, a scientist at Charité’s Molecular Cancer Research Center (MKFZ) and Institute for Theoretical Biology and the MSH Medical School Hamburg, has developed a non-invasive method for profiling a person’s unique circadian rhythm.
22.05.2023The bacteria present in the intestine provide information about the quantities of fungi of the potentially disease-causing Candida genus.
18.05.2023A new advanced artificial intelligence (AI) system has shown world-leading accuracy and speed in identifying protein patterns within individual cells.
17.05.2023The Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine (WFIRM) will make history this month when the first bioprinted solid tissue constructs soar to the International Space Station (ISS) on board the next all private astronaut mission by commercial space leader Axiom Space.
09.05.2023A team led by bioinformatics experts Andreas Keller and Fabian Kern from Saarland University together with researchers at Stanford University have gained new insights into manifestations of ageing at the molecular level.
04.05.2023Heidelberg researchers describe mechanisms that could help prevent infections with the influenza A and Ebola viruses.
04.05.2023When the heart gets out of rhythm, characteristic processes occur in the heart muscle cells. Among other things, the currents of electrically charged particles (ions) change. In chronic atrial fibrillation, one of these currents is reduced.
02.05.2023“We have developed a technique in our laboratories that allows us to obtain an antibiogram within 2-4 hours – instead of the current 24 hours for the most common germs and one month for tuberculosis,” says Dr Sandor Kasas at EPFL.
27.04.2023Not all advances in medical technology immediately catch your eye – take biologicals, for example. These are molecules that are biotechnologically designed for a specific application. In the German state of Baden-Württemberg, the Biologicals Development Center (BioDevCenter) and its infrastructure aim to bring them to market faster in the future.
19.04.2023In the process of organoid manufacturing, bioprinting technology not only facilitates the creation and maintenance of complex biological 3D shapes and structures, but also allows for standardization and quality control during production.
12.04.2023In a joint project of the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz, and the Translational Center for Regenerative Therapies at the Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC, Würzburg, scientific principles and biomaterials for the standardized production of valid tissue models are to be developed.
11.04.2023The team working with Alessandra Moretti, Professor of Regenerative Medicine in Cardiovascular Disease, has developed a method for making a sort of "mini-heart" using pluripotent stem cells.
11.04.2023The polymerase chain reaction, or PCR, plays a major role both in the diagnosis of infectious diseases and in research. Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the term has become widely known. At MEDICA 2022, the BLINK AG from Jena, Germany, presented the BLINK Beads, a technology that is bound to revolutionize the applications of PCR.
06.04.2023A team of experts has designed a microfluidic device called microfluidic dynamic BH3 profiling (μDBP) that predicts the effectiveness of cancer treatment quickly and automatically.
05.04.2023From now on, an improved research infrastructure for pandemic management and prevention will be available in the Greater Munich area: on the 29th of March 2023 a new biosafety level 3 laboratory was introduced at Helmholtz Munich.
04.04.2023New drug candidates must undergo lengthy testing using animal models before being given to participants in human trials. This means many active ingredients must already be sorted out in test series because they either do not have the desired or even have an adverse effect. These test series require many test animals. The use of zebrafish larvae could lead to a reduced demand in this setting.
27.03.2023Rice University researchers developed an upgraded tumor model that houses osteosarcoma cells beside immune cells known as macrophages inside a three-dimensional structure engineered to mimic bone. Using the model, bioengineer Antonios Mikos and collaborators found that the body’s immune response can make tumor cells more resistant to chemotherapy.
16.03.2023Scientists led by Nobel Laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Medical Research in Heidelberg have developed a super-resolution microscope with a spatio-temporal precision of one nanometer per millisecond.
16.03.2023Researchers at Lund University in Sweden have now developed a software solution for smart, data-driven microscopy, which makes this possible.
15.03.2023Technology developed at the University of Freiburg enables experimental test. The new findings could help to improve the transport of active substances into cells
03.03.2023A research group at Uppsala University has developed a simple and effective artificial blood-brain barrier model that can be used to determine how well antibody-based therapies can enter the brain.
03.03.2023Synthetic hydrogels were shown to provide an effective scaffold for neuronal tissue growth in areas of brain damage, providing a possible approach for brain tissue reconstruction.
02.03.2023The boundaries between biology and technology are becoming blurred. Researchers at Linköping, Lund, and Gothenburg universities in Sweden have successfully grown electrodes in living tissue using the body’s molecules as triggers. The result, published in the journal Science, paves the way for the formation of fully integrated electronic circuits in living organisms.
23.02.2023Researchers at the Centre for Protein Diagnostics PRODI at Ruhr University Bochum, Germany, are using artificial intelligence in combination with infrared imaging to optimally tailor colon cancer therapy to individual patients.
22.02.2023The enormous amount of data obtained by filming biological processes using a microscope has previously been an obstacle for analyses.
16.02.2023A team led by Prof Claus-Michael Lehr of the Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS) has developed a novel human lung cell line that should enable much more accurate predictions of the behavior of active substances or dosage forms in humans than previous systems.
08.02.2023A new junior research group at Freie Universität Berlin, which will investigate the production of biodegradable antiviral and antibacterial materials, with one of the goals of synthesis being new alternatives to conventional antibiotics, will receive a total budget of more than 1.8 million euros from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) over the next five years.
06.02.2023With this microfluidic device, researchers modeled how sickled blood cells clog the spleen’s filters, leading to a potentially life-threatening condition.
27.01.2023Hunting for disease clues in the dark matter of our DNA. Scientists have reconstructed the chromosomes of patients with an extremely high number of aberrations in their genome that could alter the expression of nearby genes and potentially cause disease. Their results were published in Nature Communications in October 2022.
27.01.2023The electrical potential across the bacterial cell envelope indicates when bacteria no longer operate as individual cells but as a collective. Researchers at the University of Cologne's Institute for Biological Physics have discovered this connection between the electrical properties and the lifestyle of bacteria.
26.01.2023The underlying mechanisms of long COVID are not yet fully understood. Molecular clues to different subgroups of long COVID have now been provided by a research group at University Medicine Halle.
26.01.2023CAN.HEAL aims to expand the available innovations in cancer prevention, diagnosis and treatment in the Member States in order to improve care for all patients in the EU. The project focuses on measures of personalized medicine. Genomics is an important cornerstone for this.
23.01.2023Rapid switching between different antibiotics could prevent the evolution of resistance and lead to successful treatment of patients.
18.01.2023Researchers at the Helmholtz Institute for RNA-based Infection Research (HIRI) and the Julius-Maximilians-Universität (JMU) in Würzburg have developed a technology they call TIGER. It allows complex processes in individual cells to be deciphered in vivo by recording past RNA transcripts.
16.01.2023The German Center for Cardiovascular Research is centralizing its biospecimens collections, which are currently stored at 60 sites. Therefore, it is looking for two biobanks as scientific cooperation partners. Applications are now open to all German biobanks.
13.01.2023Two Dresden research institutes want to reduce the number of animal experiments in radiopharmaceutical research with a new idea.
13.01.2023The risk for poor glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes can be predicted with confidence by using machine learning methods, a new study from Finland finds.
10.01.2023Researchers at the National Center for Hereditary Tumor Diseases (NZET) at Bonn University Hospital (UKB) have now found that artificial intelligence (AI) can improve the effectiveness of colonoscopy in the presence of Lynch syndrome.
06.01.2023In their project "Supercol"- funded by the European Union - scientists want to achieve the investigation of nanoparticles with light.
06.01.2023A new tool to identify small molecules offers benefits for diagnostics, drug discovery and fundamental research. A new machine learning model will help scientists identify small molecules, with applications in medicine, drug discovery and environmental chemistry.
05.01.2023With a multimodal microscope, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) and three partners in the joint project PriMe want to make it possible to detect bacterial infestation using fast, marker-free, and contactless imaging.
17.11.2022At MEDICA 2022, you can see why smart assistants are needed in the laboratory and which gadgets have made it into everyday laboratory work, thus reducing the workload of the specialists there and increasing efficiency.
03.11.2022The time has come: MEDICA 2022 opens its doors! Whether start-ups, current research results from sports medicine or exciting contributions from the laboratories of this world - you will find all of this bundled at the trade fair center in Düsseldorf from November 14 to 17. For a brief overview of what visitors can expect in our forums and conferences, see our Topic of the Month.
03.11.2022MEDICA 2022 is right around the corner, ready to deliver insights into the advancements and innovations in laboratory medicine. One of the key topics of the MEDICA LABMED Forum is RNA technologies and the wide range of applications that involve cell biology. RNA technologies not only enable Covid-19 vaccines but promise an array of treatment options for genetic diseases, in and beyond oncology.
08.09.2022Proteins are frequently called the building blocks of life because they are found everywhere, including in our cells. This makes them an important factor when it comes to diseases. As a result, mapping the protein landscape can be a crucial ally in the fight against diseases. Now, a German-Danish team has developed a method that provides researchers with unprecedented insights into cancer.
23.08.2022Every minute counts when someone is having an acute stroke. If the cause is a vascular blockage caused by a blood clot (thrombus) in the brain, detailed insights into the thrombus composition is critical to remove or dissolve it successfully and help restore blood flow. But that’s often easier said than done when "time is brain".
09.08.2022Early effective treatment can help manage this condition and improve the quality of life of patients. A research project aims to identify molecular markers to better assess the chances of success of certain biological therapies and subsequently determine the best individualized treatment plan.
01.08.2022Artificial intelligence (AI) is about to become a game changer, especially in diagnostics. However, there are still limits to the use of AI. Dr. Altuna Akalin had to recognize this as well. The head of the Max Delbrück Center's (MDC) technology platform for "Bioinformatics and Omics Data Science" developed "ikarus" with his team.
02.05.2022Applications of telemedicine surged in popularity in efforts to reduce the COVID-19 infection risk for both medical professionals and patients. Unfortunately, the services typically lack a proper diagnostic option.
01.03.2022The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted a global increase in healthcare commodities and medical consumables: demand for face masks, gloves, protective apparel, and other personal protective equipment has soared as a result. This also applies to rapid tests, reagents, laboratory equipment and supplies. But all this sparked a myriad of problems.
15.02.2022For nearly two years, the COVID-19 pandemic has kept a firm grip on the world and caused many intensive care units to hit full capacity. It would help medical professionals tremendously if they could make a reliable prognosis the moment patients are hospitalized. cfDNA screening could play an important role in the assessment of COVID-19 severity in patients.
25.01.2022Lab results are often complex and not easy to interpret. For many diseases, a medical diagnosis requires the analysis and combination of different values. That’s why one of the themes at the MEDICA LABMED FORUM at MEDICA 2021 highlighted "Integrative and AI-driven diagnostics" - and illustrated how AI can help interpret laboratory results and values.
10.01.2022Rapid COVID-19 tests can be rather uncomfortable as samples are typically collected with a deep nasal or throat swab. Scientists now explore an alternative to rapid diagnostic tests based on a patient’s breath.
26.11.2021A lot of laboratory tasks require high precision on one hand, on the other they tend to be repetitive and tiring. While humans can only work for a limited time here while staying effective, robots are able to work without taking a break. The start-up bAhead wants to make collaborative robots, CoBots, adaptable helpers with the help of AI. We learn more from CEO & Founder Rainer Treptow.
26.10.2021Using specialized carbon nanotubes, MIT engineers have designed a novel sensor that can detect SARS-CoV-2 without any antibodies, giving a result within minutes. Their new sensor is based on technology that can quickly generate rapid and accurate diagnostics, not just for Covid-19 but for future pandemics, the researchers say.
01.10.2021They have probably never been in the spotlight as much as during the pandemic: laboratories. In Germany alone, around 73 million COVID-19-tests have been evaluated since the beginning of 2020. And even away from Corona, laboratory physicians have a lot to do – blood, urine and aspirates have to be evaluated every day. That results in an enormous amount of work, just in terms of organization.
01.10.2021Huge amounts of data are generated in the laboratory every day, which have to be analyzed by hand. This is where artificial intelligence (AI) comes into play as a perfect helper: Because it evaluates such data volumes faster than humans ever could. The only problem with AI is: when it is developed, there is hardly any guideline or standard that makes AI systems comparable with each other.
01.10.2021In the laboratory, there is some work that is time-consuming and monotonous – making it the perfect place for digital solutions such as artificial intelligence or robotics. But what work can these systems really take on in a meaningful way, in which areas of the lab are they present today, and where do they still need to be improved?
01.10.2021Unpacking and sorting of blood samples from general practitioners is a monotonous and time-consuming task. The Aalborg University Hospital has now automated the process: Up to 3000 blood samples every day are unpacked and sorted by two lab robots provided by LT Automation. Furthermore, the samples are temperature monitored and tracked, using the Intelligent Transport Boxes.
01.09.2021Drawing inspiration from nature, a team of international scientists have invented a smart device for personalized skin care modeled after the male diving beetle. This tool collects and monitors body fluids while sticking to the skin’s surface, paving the way for more accurate diagnostics and treatment for skin diseases and conditions like acne.
31.08.2021Determining an individual’s blood group based on genetic tests instead of merely traditional blood tests can provide a better picture of the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
24.06.2021Research published in the journal ACS Materials and Interfaces has provided new understanding of how false-negative results in Lateral Flow Tests occur and provides opportunity for simple improvements to be made.
01.06.2021The sooner diagnosis can be made during an emergency, the faster the patient receives help. While most diagnostics still take place at the hospital, emergency physicians use more and more mobile devices directly at the deployment site. This is how they can save precious time. We take a look at some point-of-care applications in our Topic of the Month.
01.06.2021Making an informed and immediate treatment decision near or at the patient’s bedside – point-of-care testing (also known as POCT) makes this possible. Unlike stationary devices, special exam rooms or other service infrastructure, POC diagnostic devices offer a multitude of benefits including more flexibility, faster results, and lower costs.
28.05.2021Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been the gold standard for diagnosis during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the PCR portion of the test requires bulky, expensive machines and takes about an hour to complete, making it difficult to quickly diagnose someone at a testing site.
08.03.2021Things need to move fast in an emergency. Making the right call in this setting can be a challenge for emergency medical services – especially when symptoms are ambiguous, which is the case if a patient has difficulty breathing or exhibits a cardiovascular or poisoning emergency. A blood analysis is paramount to deliver a fast and accurate diagnosis. This is where mobOx comes in.
27.01.2021Drug research and artificial skin replacement - these are the areas in which tissue engineering and bioprinting are already used today. What else could be possible in the future? We asked Dr. Nadine Nottrodt from Fraunhofer ILT and Prof. Sabine Neuß-Stein from RWTH Aachen University Hospital!
08.12.2020If Kevin was alone in the lab at night, the next morning, the workers will not find chaos, but labeled tubes and prepared samples. Kevin is a laboratory robot developed by Fraunhofer IPA to relieve the strain on laboratory workers so that they can concentrate on the essentials: research and diagnostics.
01.12.2020The big hope of bioprinting is to someday be able to print whole human organs. So far, the process has been limited to testing platforms such as organs-on-a-chip. That's because the actual printing process already poses challenges. Scientists need suitable printing materials that ensure the cell's survival as it undergoes the procedure. The Fraunhofer IGB is researching and analyzing this aspect.
01.12.2020How do cells react to certain drugs? And how exactly is new tissue created? This can be analyzed by using bioprinting to embed cells in fine frameworks. However, current methods are often imprecise or too slow to process cells before they are damaged. At the TU Vienna, a high-resolution bioprinting process has now been developed using a new bio-ink.
01.12.2020Implants, prostheses and various other components made of plastic, metal or ceramics are already being produced by additive manufacturing. But skin, blood vessels or entire organs from the printer – is that possible? For years now, intensive research has been underway into the production of biologically functional tissue using printing processes. Some things are already possible with bioprinting.
01.12.2020It aims at the production of test systems for drug research and gives patients on the waiting lists for donor organs hope: bioprinting. Thereby biologically functional tissues are printed. But how does that actually work? What are the different bioprinting methods? And can entire organs be printed with it? These and other questions are examined in our Topic of the Month.
15.09.2020Some tasks in the laboratory are repetitive, need to be done extremely precise and require a lot of time. Such tasks are very tedious for humans, but they are tailor-made for robots. Such is the case with the "AutoCRAT" project at the Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology IPT in Aachen. Here, a robotic platform is developed to produce stem cells for the treatment of osteoarthritis.
01.09.2020Laboratories have to analyze and interpret an ever-increasing number of samples for research and diagnostic services, generating lots of data in the process. At the same time, labs are required to produce quality results and operate with speed. Processes that could once be managed using laboratory notebooks and isolated systems must become smart in the future to improve lab efficiency.
01.09.2020Diagnostics, biomedical research, screening active ingredient candidates - laboratories perform many functions and must be flexible. Growing and evolving healthcare demands mean labs have to process an increasing number of samples. Modern laboratory information management systems can already support high-throughput, but a smart laboratory environment can make things even more efficient.
01.09.2020Accuracy is paramount in laboratory settings and ensures that lab results are valid. Errors in a lab can render series of tests unusable and waste precious time and money. In the medical realm, this might even result in clinical trial errors. Augmented reality (AR) can help laboratory technicians to prevent errors and guide their work in the future.
01.09.2020There is likely no other branch of medicine where you can find as many high-tech devices as in modern laboratories. A major part of diagnostic and biomedical research is done here. A lot of individual steps in work processes need to be followed precisely to ensure the results’ quality. Also, a lot of data is generated here.
24.08.2020For the annual MEDICA trade fair, companies from all over the world assemble in Düsseldorf. The Israel Export Institute has been a part of it for the last couple of years. They present medical devices and digital innovations from different Israeli companies at their joint booth.
08.07.2020A key to preventing SARS-CoV-2 spread is frequent, comprehensive testing. This allows the early detection of infections and helps break the chain of infection. It always comes down to Coronavirus testing capacity. In Germany's southwest state of Saarland, the mobile epiLab (epidemiological laboratory) supports the search for infections lurking in nursing homes and long-term care facilities.
22.05.2020Athletes not only have to be fit and stay in shape, but they also have to achieve peak performance, especially when they get ready for athletic events. Optimized and individualized performance training requires data from external laboratories and institutes. The [i/med] Sports platform from DORNER Health IT Solutions provides a complete workflow − from anamnesis to diagnostic report.
01.04.2020What goes in, must not come out - and must also not cause harm to anyone working inside the lab. That's perhaps a nice way of summing up "laboratory safety" in one sentence - at least wherever pathogens are handled in biological and medical settings. The necessary laboratory safety precautions primarily depend on what is waiting "inside".
01.04.2020When working with infectious materials and organisms in the laboratory, safe handling and appropriate training are of utmost importance. Another central component is personal protective equipment designed to prevent contact with tissue, liquids and aerosols and protect the wearer.
01.04.2020Laboratories are sectioned into four biosafety levels to dictate the precautions required to isolate dangerous biological agents. The highest level of biological safety, BSL-4, is perhaps the most well-known when we think of containing pathogens and microbes. However, the fewest number of laboratories actually fall into the BSL-4 category.
01.04.2020When biomedical researchers or diagnosticians work with potentially contagious materials like cell cultures, blood or tissue, they need absolute protection from pathogens. Both safety measures in the workspace and the correct tools and materials are key here. Learn in our Topic of the Month what is important for protection in the lab and what a safe laboratory looks like.
12.12.2019Diagnostic testing usually takes some time and a sterile environment to get the results. To cut down on the costs and effort spend on these tasks there are different diagnostic tests. One of them are single-use tests offered by SensDx S.A. The technology behind them not only makes the process faster and easier, but provides the opportunity to expand into home use in the future as well.
08.11.2019If physicians suspect an acute myocardial infarction, they first order an ECG. This test is very established and allows cardiologists to quickly diagnose acute heart attacks – though the test does not detect less common heart attack symptoms. So far, those patients had to wait up to twelve hours before a heart attack could be accurately diagnosed or ruled out. But things are about the change.
04.11.2019Laboratories are medicine’s secret weapon because they handle the lion’s share of diagnostics often without patients even realizing it. That’s why the continuing workforce shortage in both laboratory medicine and companies is especially troubling. The MEDICA LABMED FORUM 2019 plans to address and counteract this development.
04.11.2019Soon, the world's largest trade fair for medical technology will open its doors again: More than 5.000 exhibitors will present their newest products and ideas at MEDICA from 18 to 21 November. You will not only meet well-known companies here, but also lots of young start-ups. Or, you can visit the MEDICA forums and conferences to experience a rich program of lectures and discussions.
21.10.2019Digital blood glucose measurement via a sensor on the arm, glucose values in an app and data evaluation with the help of software: diabetes experts, product specialists at Roche Diabetes Care Germany and a patient talk in our report on MEDICA.de about the future of diabetes treatment.
08.10.2019The healthcare market offers a multitude of microscopes that make cells visible to the human eye. The same applies to AI-based software for image analysis. After taking the microscopic images, scientist are faced with large volumes of scans with usually low resolution. Yet when all aspects merge together, they open up a the world of digital pathology.
01.10.2019When the halls of MEDICA are open to the world to showcase medical innovations, one joint exhibition booth is guaranteed to attract special attention - the MEDICA START-UP PARK. The startups that present their advances in this setting are interesting to visitors and investors, yet long-time exhibitors and big businesses can also benefit from building relationships with these young companies.
23.09.2019For patients waiting for donor organs, every day can mean the difference between life and death. Making things even more complicated is the fact that not every organ is a compatible match with the patient. It would mean enormous progress if we could grow organs from the patient's own cells in the lab. That's why patients with heart disease place big hope in tissue engineering.
22.08.2019The German Medical Award will take place on November 18, 2019, as part of the MEDICA trade fair in Düsseldorf. The ceremony emphasizes the commitment to excellence in cutting-edge care for patients. Doctors, clinical centers and companies in the medical and healthcare industry can demonstrate their achievements in medicine and management in hopes of receiving the coveted award.
08.08.2019After their tumor has been removed, some patients have to return to the hospital to undergo surgery again. That's because the tumor was not precisely identified and was subsequently not completely removed. That's both an ethical and financial dilemma. A new surgery-adjacent procedure is designed to rapidly and accurately detect tumors.
01.08.2019An untreatable infection is a nightmare for physicians and potentially life-threatening to the patient. Unfortunately, more and more pathogens emerge that are resistant to drugs, especially antibiotics. We need to use our drugs smartly and come up with technical solutions as well to prevent our weapons from blunting in the future.
01.08.2019Antibiotic resistance is modern medicine's greatest challenge. Some bacteria only respond to a handful of antibiotics, prompting hospitals to spend a lot of time finding an effective drug. That’s why it is critical for physicians to rapidly identify antibiotic resistance to avoid ineffective treatments.
15.05.2019New active substances that are suitable for drugs are initially tested in animal experiments. However, the results cannot always be transferred to the human organism. At the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Prof. Ute Schepers from vasQlab explains how active substances can be tested in human tissue without endangering human health.
01.02.2019In vitro processes and animal tests are used to develop new medications and novel therapeutic approaches. However, animal testing raises important ethical concerns. Organ-on-a-chip models promise to be a feasible alternative. In a system the size of a smartphone, organs are connected using artificial circulation.
01.02.2019The liver, nervous tissue or the intestines: all are important human organs that have in the past been tested for their function and compatibility using animal or in vitro test methods. In recent years, TissUse GmbH, a spin-off of the Technical University of Berlin (TU Berlin), has launched multi-organ chip platforms. But that’s not all.
01.02.2019Organ-on-a-chip systems are technically a great enhancement of medical research because they facilitate testing of active ingredients on cell cultures in the chambers of a plastic chip. This replaces animal testing and improves patient safety. That being said, they are not a true-to-life replication of the human body and can only simulate a few functions and activities.