What are sensitivity and specificity?
Baumeister: We first focused on achieving a relatively high level of sensitivity. That is to say, if the test indicates that the patient is healthy, there is a 97 percent probability that this is indeed the case. Specificity is at the opposite pole: higher sensitivity automatically means lower specificity. Specificity refers to the extent of accuracy or probability that a test will correctly identify that a person is sick.
Our screening test is currently at a specificity of 85 percent. This means that out of 100 people who are identified by Cardisiography as being sick, 15 are actually not sick and tested "false positive". You can determine overall accuracy by combining the false positive rate, sensitivity, and specificity. Cardisiography is 91 percent accurate in this setting, which is a very high percentage by today's standards. Cardisiography accuracy will continually improve in the future as we enhance and optimize our AI models with new data and new information.
The collected data is correlated together in the Cardisio HealthNet. What happens to the data?
Baumeister: Once the data gets to the data center, it is fed into an algorithm - our proprietary artificial intelligence. We have 25 connected neural networks that subsequently assess 290 parameters per heartbeat. This is followed by various statistics to conclude significance and correlations. The neural network uses the results to determine the values for the Cardisio Index.
The neural networks were trained with data from patients who were examined using Cardisiography and cardiac catheterization. Afterward the results were compared to review whether the Cardisio test results concurred with the cardiac catheterization results. Data from matching results were subsequently used to train the neural networks.
What are the characteristics that differentiate Cardisiography from standard medical devices used to diagnose heart disease?
Baumeister: First we have the test’s accuracy. Right now, there is nothing comparable out there, aside from cardiac catheterization, which is an invasive and expensive procedure. The second benefit is the speed, which is very fast as testing only takes 4 minutes or less. What’s more, Cardisiography is a very easy-to-use and cost-effective method.
You are a startup from Frankfurt that has already expanded internationally - what are your future goals?
Baumeister: Our primary goal is to make Cardisiography part of the cardiology guidelines. We also aim for a comprehensive use in an effort to help as many people as possible to detect a risk of coronary heart disease early and prevent future complications and heart attacks. Early detection can set the stage for preventive measures and effective treatment. There are simple ways to limit or stop the progression of this disease. That’s why our goal is to make Cardisiography accessible to all people and enable the monitoring of heart disease.