Background Reports 2019 -- MEDICA - World Forum for Medicine

Image: mini-gut organoid generated in the lab; Copyright: UC San Diego Health Sciences

Gut-in-a-dish model to define gut leaks

11.02.2020

Leaky gut is most often experienced by older people, patients with cancers or other chronic ailments, and people with especially stressful lifestyles. Stressors break down the zipper-like junctions between the cells that form the gut lining. Microbes and molecules that subsequently leak out through these cell gaps can trigger an immune response, contributing to a variety of diseases.
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Image: A hand with a glove is holing a petri dish with bacterial cultures in it; Copyright: panthermedia.net/Lyoshanazarenko

Genetics: one quarter of bacteria can spread antibiotic resistance to peers

07.02.2020

Biomedical engineers at Duke University have demonstrated that at least 25 percent of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria found in clinical settings are capable of spreading their resistance directly to other bacteria.
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Image: Three young men sitting at a couch together; Copyright: Klaus Pichler/CeMM

Diagnostics: single-cell sequencing of leukemia therapy

05.02.2020

Researchers at the CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and partners in Hungary have studied the response to targeted leukemia therapy in unprecedented detail, using single-cell sequencing and epigenetic analysis.
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Image: A man in an MRI with his head fixed, next to him two physicians who discuss the images; Copyright: panthermedia.net/Ancikainfot

Advanced imaging and genomic analysis could help treat brain cancer

04.02.2020

Melding the genetic and cellular analysis of tumors with how they appear in medical images could give physicians and other cancer therapy specialists new insights into how to best treat patients, especially those with brain cancer, according to a new study led by the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen), an affiliate of City of Hope.
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Image: A half-transparent red piece of tissue in a glass filled with a yellow fluid; Copyright: United Therapeutics

rhCollagen: genetically engineered building block for regenerative medicine

03.02.2020

Collagen is the stuff that holds our bodies together and that houses our cells. In regenerative medicine, it is also the stuff that can be applied to wounds to support healing. However, collagen from animal or human sources has some drawbacks for today’s medicine. This is where rhCollagen from the Israeli company CollPlant comes into play.
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Image: close-up of fat cells; Copyright: Cincinnati Children's

Fat cells can sense sunlight

22.01.2020

Eye-opening study from Cincinnati Children's suggests that lack of sun can lead to problems beyond seasonal affective disorder. Yes, fat cells deep under your skin can sense light. And when bodies do not get enough exposure to the right kinds of light, fat cells behave differently.
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Image: Cells on a programmable composite of silica nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes; Copyright: Niemeyer-Lab, KIT

Programmable materials for stem cells

21.01.2020

Using DNA, smallest silica particles, and carbon nanotubes, researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) developed novel programmable materials. These nanocomposites can be tailored to various applications and programmed to degrade quickly and gently.
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Image: Female physician shows a man an image of his brain with a tumor marked; Copyright: panthermedia.net/imagepointfr

Imaging: peeking into the genome of brain tumors

17.01.2020

Researchers at Osaka University have developed a computer method that uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and machine learning to rapidly forecast genetic mutations in glioma tumors, which occur in the brain or spine. The work may help glioma patients to receive more suitable treatment faster, giving better outcomes. The research was recently published in Scientific Reports.
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Image: Female physician shows a man an image of the prostate; Copyright: panthermedia.net/imagepointfr

Prostate cancer can now be diagnosed better using AI

16.01.2020

Researchers at Radboud university medical center have developed a 'deep learning' system that is better than most pathologists at determining the aggressiveness of prostate cancer. The AI system, which uses tissue samples to arrive at its diagnosis, taught itself to identify prostate cancer based on data from over 1200 patients.
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Image: A vial with a blood sample, inside a graphic showing a DNA helix; Copyright: panthermedia.net/Kiyoshi Takahase Segundo

21-gene recurrence score may help in radiation decision-making

15.01.2020

A new study shows that a test physicians commonly used to guide chemotherapy treatment for post-breast cancer surgery patients may also help them decide whether radiation therapy may be of benefit.
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Image: structure of the system; Copyright: Sternberg and Fernández Labs at Columbia University Irving Medical Center

DNA: first images of an 'upgraded' CRISPR tool

20.12.2019

Columbia scientists have captured the first images of a new gene editing tool that could improve upon existing CRISPR-based tools. The team developed the tool, called INTEGRATE, after discovering a unique "jumping gene" in Vibrio cholerae bacteria that could insert large genetic payloads in the genome without introducing DNA breaks.
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Image: A lab technician is using a pipette to fill a solution into a petri dish; Copyright: panthermedia.net/Arne Trautmann

Last-resort antibiotics: "We can identify carbapenemases within half an hour"

01.08.2019

Antibiotic resistance is modern medicine's greatest challenge. Some bacteria only respond to a handful of antibiotics, prompting hospitals to spend a lot of time finding an effective drug. That’s why it is critical for physicians to rapidly identify antibiotic resistance to avoid ineffective treatments.
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Image: Preview picture to the video

Interview with Hombrechtikon Systems Engineering AG

15.11.2018

Whether DNA testing, tissue analysis or blood tests – the secrets of life are unraveled in the laboratory. In order to master this challenge, all processes must first be optimized and automated. Which role HSE AG plays here, the Swiss company explains at MEDICA 2018.
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Image: A group of physicians is holding large colorful puzzle pieces in their hands and is putting them together; Copyright: panthermedia.net/Andriy Popov

Personalized medicine: a paradigm shift is gaining momentum

01.03.2018

Personalized medicine does not follow a "one-size-fits-all" treatment approach but emphasizes a "tailor-made" paradigm, meaning a treatment is customized to each individual person's case. For patients, this increases the chances of treatment success and means fewer side effects. While the approach originates in the field of oncology, it is now also increasingly applied to other disease patterns.
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Image: Three men in suits and a woman in a laboratory coat are standing in a laboratory; Copyright: Ministry of Economy of Mecklenburg-Hither Pomerania/Norbert Fellechner

On the trail of cancer: personalized cancer vaccine

01.03.2018

Conventional cancer treatment selection typically depends on the location of the tumor. However, this approach ignores the distinct gene mutations in the tumor of the individual patient. New cancer research approaches increasingly emphasize the concept of personalized therapy.
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Image: yellow tape measure with capsules in front of it; Copyright: panthermedia.net/Jiri Hera

Personalized cancer medicine: customized treatment

01.03.2018

Everyone is different. This statement also applies to our health. Cancer, in particular, can look and progress differently depending on the individual person. That’s why every patient ideally also needs a customized treatment that is tailored to their individual needs. But how feasible is this idea?
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Image: Collage made of two images, one show a round, transparent plastic disc with micro channels, one shows a plastic chip; Copyright: Hahn-Schickard, Image Bernd Müller

Prenatal diagnosis: genetic analysis using droplet PCR

24.07.2017

A new analysis method that uses fetal DNA extracted from the mother’s blood is designed to non-invasively reach a prenatal diagnosis of genetic disorders in a child. A task force of the Hahn Schickard Society for Applied Research is an active part of the "ANGELab" project and co-developed this diagnostic procedure.
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Image: Children playing outside, getting wet in the water; Copyright: panthermedia.net/Wavebreakmedia ltd

Pneumonia in Children: Ultrasound or X-Rays?

08.03.2017

Pneumonia is the most frequent respiratory disease in children and can even cause death. That is why it is extremely important to make an accurate diagnosis as quickly as possible. If this requires imaging tests, normally X-rays are taken. But there is an alternative: ultrasound.
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